Governor Corbett Finally Pulls the Plug on ALEC Voter ID Law in Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania Governor Tom Corbett (R) will not appeal the Commonwealth Court’s recent decision to strike down the so-called voter ID law.

Gov. Tom Corbett put another nail in the coffin of Pennsylvania’s voter identification law on Thursday, announcing he would not appeal a judge’s decision that the law violated the fundamental right to vote.

The Republican governor issued a statement that defended the law, but he also said it needed changes and that he hoped to work with the Legislature on them.

We’ve written frequently about the voter ID law in Pennsylvania, which contained some of the most restrictive voting restrictions in the country. As many as 750,000 Pennsylvania residents lacked the ID required by the law, many of them seniors minorities, students, and low-income workers.

The law passed in March 2012 mirrored other “voter ID” bills introduced in state legislatures nationwide, all of them based on ALEC model legislation. Prominent ALEC member State Rep. Daryl Metcalfe (R-Butler) was one of the laws main boosters in Harrisburg.

The state spent about $7 million trying to enforce the law, while at the same time making huge cuts to education and public services.

“That’s money that could have been spent elsewhere. It’s money that could have gone to schools,” said Philadelphia City Commissioner Stephanie Singer, “It’s money that could have gone to real voter education and that’s really a shame.”

According to MSNBC, Gov. Corbett “raised the idea” of fixing the voter ID law through the legislature, but “suggested it wasn’t a priority.

In 2012, Working America members made educating their communities about the potential new voting restrictions a top priority. Through canvassing, radio, social media, and simple conversations with friends and family, we educated an estimated 425,000 Pennsylvanians before the law was enjoined. The effort was chronicled in detail by Voting Rights News.

If Gov. Corbett is defeated this November, it may be a very long time before we see voter ID in the Keystone State.

Photo by @abc27news on Twitter

Tags: , , , , , ,

Senator Casey Urges Governor Corbett to Give Up the Fight on ALEC-Backed Voting Law

Bob Casey, senior senator from Pennsylvania, is urging Governor Tom Corbett to end his attempts to enact that state’s controversial voter suppression law.

“At every turn Pennsylvania’s Voter ID law has been rejected by the courts,” Casey wrote to Corbett’s office, “Continuing this appeal will only continue to cast a cloud of uncertainty over residents who are rightly concerned that this law will prevent them from exercising their right to vote.”

The letter comes three days after a Commonwealth Court judge denied the Corbett administration’s request to reconsider their January decision that struck down the law.

The Pennsylvania law, based on an ALEC model bill and championed by ALEC member legislators like Rep. Daryl Metcalfe, required that voters must show specific kinds of photo identification to cast a ballot. The legislature passed the bill in March 2012 knowing that  750,000 Pennsylvanians, many of them seniors, minorities, and low-income workers, did not have this type of ID.

While Gov. Corbett and his allies in the legislature pushed enormous cuts to education and public services, the state spent $7 million in a bungled, widely mocked attempt to enact the new voting restrictions.

After the law passed in March 2012, Working America members and organizers were able to reach estimated 642,000 Pennsylvanians with information about what they would need to vote. This year, our members are mobilizing in North Carolina to educate their community about that state’s new stringent voting restrictions; which, not coincidentally, is also based on an ALEC model and promoted by ALEC member legislators.

We don’t yet know if the Corbett administration will appeal the ruling and take the case to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court. But we hope he decides instead to follow the advice of Sen. Casey and thousands of others who want the governor to focus on creating more jobs, not fewer voting rights.

Photo by Senator Robert P. Casey, Jr. on Facebook

Tags: , , , , , ,

Two Of Nation’s Most Restrictive ALEC-Backed Voting Laws Blocked On The Same Day

ivoted_vox_efx_onflickr

On April 29, 2014, restrictive voting laws in both Wisconsin and Pennsylvania were dealt major blows.

In Wisconsin, the voter ID law passed in 2011 and backed by Gov. Scott Walker was struck down by a federal judge. U.S. District Judge Lynn Adelman wrote that the law placed unfair burdens on poor and minority voters, as well as the nearly 300,000 Wisconsinites who currently lack ID. The law has not been enforced since a state judge ruled it unconstitutional in March 2012.

While attending the Time 100 gala in New York City, Gov. Walker told reporters: “We ultimately think that just like many other issues in the last several years that it will ultimately be upheld.” Wisconsin Attorney General J.B. Van Hollen Plans to appeal.

Over in Pennsylvania, Commonwealth Court Judge Bernard L. McGinley denied the request of Gov. Tom Corbett’s administration to reconsider his ruling that overturned that state’s voter ID law. McGinley struck down the law in January, finding that it put an unreasonable burden on the nearly 750,000 Pennsylvanians who lack photo identification.

The judge “also entered a permanent injunction,” said Pennsylvania ACLU legal director Vic Walczak, “which means the voter ID law cannot be enforced unless and until the [state] Supreme Court takes some kind of action.” The Corbett administration has not yet said whether they plan to appeal.

Those decisions come on the heels of a similar situation in Arkansas, where a judge declared that state’s voter ID law “void and unenforceable.”

These laws were part of a nationwide push for restrictive voting laws after the 2010 elections, backed by the power of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC).

The Pennsylvania and Wisconsin voter ID laws were both based on ALEC model legislation and pushed by ALEC-affiliated legislators. According to NBC News, lawmakers proposed 62 photo ID bills in 37 states in the 2011 and 2012 sessions alone, and that “more than half of the 62 bills were sponsored by members or conference attendees” of ALEC.

The Pennsylvania law was championed by prominent ALEC member Rep. Daryl Metcalfe, who used taxpayer money to attend ALEC conferences.

So what’s next? Egregious voting restrictions are still on the books across the country, particularly in North Carolina. Working America members in NC have made it their primary focus to educate their communities about the law.

But as the New York Times editorial board put it, Wisconsin’s Judge Adelman has “paved the path” for similar laws across the country to be confronted by the court system.

Photo by vox_efx on Flickr

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

Pennsylvania Judge Rules Against ALEC Voter Suppression Bill, But the Fight Goes On

Last week, those of us who think voting should have equal access to the ballot received a bit of good news.

The voter suppression law passed in Pennsylvania in March 2012, one of the most restricting voting rights policies in the country, was ruled unconstitutional by a Commonwealth Court judge:

The Supreme Court worked quickly when it addressed voter ID in the run-up to the 2012 election, so it remains unknown whether voters will be required to show photo identification in the May primary.

For now, however, the law is invalid after Judge Bernard McGinley of Commonwealth Court found that it “unreasonably burdens the right to vote” and threatens a fundamental right of hundreds of thousands of qualified voters.

“Voting laws are designed to assure a free and fair election; the Voter ID Law does not further this goal,” the decision states.

The decision confirmed what Working America’s 500,000 Pennsylvania members already understood: The law threatened the constitutional right of Pennsylvanians to vote, and it disproportionately targeted the elderly, students and communities of color.

If that sounds awfully similar to other voting rights restrictions passed in other states, like Wisconsin and North Carolina, that’s no accident. The Pennsylvania voting rights law is based on an ALEC model bill, and State Rep. Daryl Metcalfe, who shepherded the bill through the legislature, is an active ALEC member.

Republican legislators dismissed concerns that the law had been designed to depress Democratic turnout ahead of the 2012 election. However, Rep. Mike Turzai let it slip at a recorded meeting that “voter ID” would “allow Governor Romney to win the state of Pennsylvania.”

“[The] decision is a victory for working families in Pennsylvania,” said Catherine Balsamo, Senior Member Coordinator with Working America. “Folks deserve the right to advocate for themselves and their communities, and the right to vote provides that essential voice.”

In 2012, after the law’s passage, Working America members raised community awareness about the law to help everyday Americans know what they’d need to do to keep their right to vote.  Between our media presence, conversations with community members, online actions and more, Catherine, Benita and the Working America team reached an estimated 642,000 people with information about what they’d need to vote.

Our member Benita Campbell was active in that campaign. “It’s another feather in Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s hat, because it’s a continuation of our collective struggle,” she said of the decision. “It’s a wonderful way to honor him…If this ruling is upheld, we all win.”

So what’s next? Some Republican legislators are considering an appeal to the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, or even passing an entirely new bill that could pass constitutional muster. Hopefully, though, Gov. Corbett and his legislative allies will move on from political attacks on voters to the issues that our members actually consider: creating jobs, expanding Medicaid, and adequately funding Pennsylvania public schools.

Tags: , , , , , ,

Neither Snow Nor Rain Nor Gloom of Congress: Punching In

Postal Service will end Saturday mail service this August.

Why you can blame Congress for mail service cuts.

How the labor movement did a 180 on immigration.

North Carolina House passes horrific unemployment cuts.

Loyal ALEC soldier Daryl Metcalfe pushing “no rights at work” in Pennsylvania.

Gov. Kasich’s new sales tax hike will hit lower-income Ohioans most.

(And you know it’s not a good tax plan when Grover Norquist supports it.)

Florida Gov. Rick Scott plans a $100 million reelection campaign, most expensive in state history.

Speaking of Rick Scott, study shows minorities waited twice as long to vote as whites in 2012 (Florida had the longest lines nationwide).

Feminist blog Jezebel on earned sick days: “Why is this even an issue?”

Bill Clinton: We need to update the Family and Medical Leave Act for the 21st Century.

Finally: Chart of the Day.

Voter Suppression—and How to Win the Fight Against It

We’re inside of six weeks to Election Day, and in many states early and absentee voting is already underway. And those of us who oppose voter suppression have seen some good news over the past few days—most recently, Wisconsin’s Supreme Court decided not to rush through a case on that state’s restrictive voter ID law, meaning it likely won’t be in effect this year.

Pennsylvania’s voter-suppression law remains in doubt: it’s caught up in courts who are deciding whether the state is actually capable of getting eligible voters ID in time. Actual evidence on the ground suggests that no, it’s not:

Thousands of people in the state are scrambling to get their photo IDs, not waiting for the judge’s decision. For many, including Mitchell and Herbert, the process is a struggle.

Mitchell, 68, has to renew her expired ID. Herbert has a current ID but needs to update the address. She’s 65, has multiple sclerosis and uses a motorized wheelchair. She’s not happy about this new law.

“I think it’s stupid,” Herbert says. “Folks that have been voting all their life, like me, shouldn’t have to go through this.”

What is clear is that there’s utterly no evidence that the laws coming between these women and their right to participate are even necessary. There’s a hard-charging and well-funded campaign, staffed by Bush administration veterans, to raise fears about “voter integrity.” And time after time, it’s been made clear that their relentless campaign to find evidence of large-scale fraud comes up empty. It’s just a useless, counterproductive burden to eligible voters.

In the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Working America member Julie Parker writes:

Our commonwealth has taken a giant step backward in the arena of civil rights. The photo ID requirement is not about “voter fraud,” but rather it is an attempt to disenfranchise citizens.

For a great explanation of where voter ID laws came from and why they’re unnecessary, check out this interactive feature from Newsbound.

There’s also a more informal effort to suppress the vote. A Texas Tea Party group calling itself “True the Vote” promises to recruit up to a million poll-watchers to “monitor” voting. In 2010, this group targeted not the precincts where its members lived, but minority-heavy and poorer urban precincts—with discomforting results:

Among other things, poll observers were accused of hovering over voters, blocking lines of people who were trying to cast ballots, and, in the words of Assistant County Attorney Terry O’Rourke, “getting into election workers’ faces”… Other reports had poll watchers tailing vans that were transporting voters to the polls, snapping photos of voters’ license plates, even directing voters to the wrong polling places.

This kind of interference has no legal grounding; all it does is put an extra barrier between people and their right to vote—not just causing delays and long lines, but undermining trust between people.

“Voter ID laws are just a specific, particularly obvious example of a generalized contempt for voters,” notes Ana Marie Cox, who points out that voter-limiting laws and “True the Vote”-style monitoring are both likely to have the effect of frightening and discouraging eligible voters. (There may be no better example of this contempt than Pennsylvania state Rep. Daryl Metcalfe, the sponsor of the state’s voter ID bill, who said that his bill is only a problem to people who are “too lazy.”)

The only antidote to this coordinated, broad effort to restrict voting? It’s to get out and vote anyway—and to work hard to make sure your friends, family and neighbors do, too. In Pennsylvania, Working America members are trying to get out the message about the importance of voting and the new requirements to a million people before Election Day. In Wisconsin, Working America members are hosting “postcard parties” to contact other voters. And Working America organizers are having tens of thousands of conversations in neighborhoods every week, including encouraging people to take advantage of early voting and vote by mail where it’s available.

If you’d like to find out about the options in your state and plan your vote, we have a great new site to make it easy.

Who Are You Calling Lazy? Punching In

Pennsylvania state Rep. Daryl Metcalfe backs voter suppression laws and Romney’s “47%” comments, saying people who are “too lazy” shouldn’t vote.

Reality check: the ordeal people actually have to go through to exercise their rights in Pennsylvania.

The state Supreme Court has opened the door to defeat Pennsylvania’s restrictive law.

A bill aimed at creating jobs for veterans falls to a Republican filibuster in the Senate.

Telling it like it is on the veterans’ jobs bill: Republicans were “eager to shoot down President Obama’s legislative agenda just weeks before the election.”

Coal misfire part 1: Romney ad uses footage of coal miners who were forced to be at his rally and lost a day’s pay.

Coal misfire part 2: Republican House candidate’s ad stars a guy dressed like a miner…who is actually a coal-industry executive.

Finally: the Wall Street Journal has published nine separate columnists without disclosing that they’re Romney advisors.

93 Year-Old Woman Exposes Cracks in Pennsylvania Voter Suppression Law

Meet Viviette Applewhite, the new face of the nationwide, corporate-backed assault on voting rights.

Applewhite is 93 years old, and she has voted in every election for the past 60 years. She even marched with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Georgia. But under Pennsylvania’s new voter suppression law HB 934, championed by the radical Rep. Daryl Metcalfe with a strong assist from ALEC, Viviette Applewhite cannot exercise her right to vote.

Applewhite doesn’t drive and her purse containing her identification card was stolen. She’s been unable to obtain an identification card since because officials can’t track down her birth certificate.

Applewhite is one of the plaintiffs in ACLU-PA’s legal challenge to the voter suppression law, which Gov. Tom Corbett signed in March. And while her situation is quite specific, there are hundreds of other ways in which the law effectively disenfranchises Pennsylvania citizens, as shown by the suit’s other plaintiffs:

Other plaintiffs in the case include a transgender man…a 89-year-old resident who initially couldn’t get a driver’s license because her marriage certificate is in Hebrew and another 93-year-old woman who has limited mobility and trouble getting to the polls.

(You can watch videos of some of the other plaintiffs on the ACLU-PA website.)

They aren’t alone, either. As voting rights activist Faye Anderson told the Philadelphia Weekly, one of the groups most affected by this new law are divorced women:

“If a woman wants to change her name to vote, she has to produce her marriage license,” says Anderson, noting many newlyweds often forget to change their name on their driver’s license. “It’s possible that we can have a situation in which a voter in Pennsylvania without ID, a married woman who is now divorced, will have to stand in four separate lines to gather the documents that she would need to show voter ID.”

What about the thousands of Pennsylvania students at Penn State, Temple, and the State System of Higher Education colleges like Kutztown and East Stroudsberg, who want to use their school ID to cast a ballot? They’re out of luck – the law requires the use of ID with expiration dates, which most college ID’s do not have.

In addition to the many women and seniors disproportionately affected by this policy, there are the usual targets of voter suppression: minorities and low-income voters, who are more likely not to have state-issued ID.

The biggest joke of the Pennsylvania voter suppression law? It seeks to prevent a practice that largely does not exist. Supporters of the law try to conjure up fear of old-school city machine-style politics, like the “walking around money” once given out on the streets of Philadelphia, or the “dead voters” in Chicago. But those practices, to the extent that they exist, are not affected by HB 934:

But the law’s main provision, requiring the state’s 8.2 million registered voters to produce drivers’ licenses or other official forms of photo ID, appears to target a kind of fraud that by all accounts hasn’t cropped up in recent years in the city or state.

“The phrase used is voter impersonation, where John Doe pretends to be Henry Jones in order to cast a vote,” Harvey said. “No one has identified any such cases, certainly in Philadelphia, in my time frame.” Harvey is 75.

Remember again, HB 934 costs the taxpayers $6 million – while cash-strapped schools across Pennsylvania go wanting.

We agree with the ACLU: not only is HB 934 unconstitutional, but Corbett, Metcalfe, and their allies never sought to address any actual problems by pushing the law. Their goal is to keep enough voters away from the polls to remain in power and keep champions of working families out of office, so that the coffers of their corporate backers can go unscathed by closing loopholes, a fairer tax system, or any sort of accountability.

In Wisconsin, a permanent injunction is keeping that state’s voter suppression law from impeding the will of the voters in the June 5 gubernatorial recall. Hopefully, the ACLU suit will succeed and a legal injunction will keep this disgusting law from disenfranchising thousands in November.

Go get ‘em, Miss Applewhite.

Tags: , , ,

The Corporate-Backed Assault on Voting Rights Could Be Illegal

Source: facebook.com via Working America on Pinterest

The American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) uses corporate donations to transport and board state legislators who attend conferences, where they meet with corporate lobbyists to produce “model legislation.” The fingerprints of these little getaways can be seen all over the seemingly identical attacks on collective bargaining rights, immigrant rights, and voting rights from coast to coast.

We’re offended by the idea that our legislators don’t represent us; that they are merely serving as delivery systems for corporate-supported bills like Wisconsin’s union-busting Act 10 or Pennsylvania’s voter suppression law. But because ALEC uses corporate money for airfare and hotel rooms for their delivery systems – I mean, state legislators – they could also be breaking the law.

That’s the contention of the Center for Media and Democracy (CMD), who filed an ethics complaint against ALEC with Wisconsin’s General Accountability Board (GAB), which oversees elections in the state. Current Wisconsin law prevents legislators from accepting anything of value connected to their office, particularly from lobbyists.

Although ALEC describes itself as the largest membership group for legislators, over 98% of its $7 million budget is from corporations and sources other than legislative dues. Documents obtained via Wisconsin open records law and other sources show that ALEC corporations are funding lawmakers’ out-of-state travel expenses to posh resorts for ALEC meetings with corporate lobbyists, in addition to gifts of entertainment and exclusive parties.

ALEC categorizes itself is a non-profit, but CMD says that the money used for the “scholarships” to get legislators to the conferences comes from other, corporate funds. “We believe based on evidence that we’ve received that these ALEC scholarships are essentially a gift from corporations to state legislators in an effort to influence their vote and influence legislation,” said CMD’s Brendan Fischer.

In the case of voter suppression bills, that certainly seems to be the case. We’ve written about Daryl Metcalfe, the State Representative in Pennsylvania behind the voter suppression bill in that state, who actually used taxpayer dollars to attend ALEC conferences. But in five states other states where voter suppression laws have been passed – Wisconsin, Tennessee, Kansas, Texas, and South Carolina – the primary supporters of those bills have been associated with ALEC.

In Minnesota, the voter suppression effort is being led by Rep. Mary Kiffmeyer (R-Big Lake), who just happens to be the Minnesota chairwoman for ALEC. When questioned on this connection, she replied “I might have a novel brain in my head and have a unique thought; I am not dependent upon somebody else’s idea.” But an analysis by the Associated Press found that there are many similarities between Kiffmeyer’s bill and the model voter ID bill produced by ALEC in 2009.

Coincidence or not, we hope that CMD’s complaint gets some answers out of ALEC, especially in light of the corporate money being used for legislators’ travel and board. “These gifts raise legitimate questions about improper influence,” said CMD’s Brendan Fischer. That’s for sure. It’s bad enough corporate interests are using our legislators to attack our rights, but they could also be blatantly violating the law to do it.

Tags: , , , , ,

We Deserve Answers to Our #SimpleQuestions

Take Action Now: Ask your state legislator two simple questions.

Nope, it’s not your imagination. Corporations are trying to replace you – citizens, taxpayers, and human beings – as the primary decision-makers in our democracy.

Note a few events of the last few years:

The Citizens United Supreme Court decision, which lifted restrictions on corporate expenditures on elections.

The rise of SuperPAC’s, corporate-backed legal entities who can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money to support or attack candidates and causes. They are not obligated to disclose where the money comes from, and already they are playing an equal – if not bigger – role in the 2012 election than the candidates themselves.

The coordinated, nationwide War on Voting Rights, from Wisconsin to South Carolina and a dozen states in between. The push for voter ID laws in many of these states have been led by state legislators using “model legislation” they got from ALEC, an organization that pairs state legislators with corporate lobbyists to come up with corporate-friendly laws. We’ve written about Pennsylvania, the most recent state to pass one of these laws, where ALEC-attendee Rep. Daryl Metcalfe was the primary sponsor.

On a national level, the continuing influx of money and lobbying power on Capitol Hill, where the 112th Congress (the most conservative on record, according to one study) is completely driven by the wants and needs of wealthy corporations, whereas attempts to help working people – unemployment insurance, the payroll tax cut, infrastructure investment, aid to state governments to rehire teachers and first responders – have been fought tooth and nail, filibustered, defeated, or killed in committee.

But when it comes to corporate influence, it’s the state level where we want to focus our attention.

State houses are where the most egregious assaults on voting rights, fair share rights, and collective bargaining rights have occurred. Think Act 10 in Wisconsin and SB 1070 in Arizona.

State legislators are the delivery systems for ALEC’s corporate-backed “model legislation.” It’s no accident that Daryl Metcalfe and his counterparts in other states attended ALEC conferences and returned with model voter ID bills and collective bargaining bans.

Ultimately, the decision to overturn Citizens United can only occur at the state level. If you remember from history class, the U.S. Constitution can only be amended by 2/3 of state legislatures – not Congress.

That’s why we’re asking our State Legislators two simple questions:

1.) Are corporations people?

2.) Will you protect my right to vote from corporate influence?

The key is to get state legislators on the record on these issues, so we don’t get hoodwinked by corporate-backed politicians claiming to be “small government conservatives” while delivering ALEC legislation that infringes on citizens’ rights.

We elect our legislators, pay their salaries, and ultimately suffer when they deliver destructive legislations. We deserve answers to these two, basic, simple questions.

Take Action Now: Ask your state legislator two simple questions.

Nope, it’s not your imagination. Corporations are trying to replace you – citizens, taxpayers, and human beings – as the primary decision-makers in our democracy.

Note a few events of the last few years:

The Citizens United Supreme Court decision, which declared that corporations are people and entitled to all the free speech afforded to American citizens.

The rise of SuperPAC’s, corporate-backed legal entities who can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money to support or attack candidates and causes. They are already playing an equal – if not bigger – role in the 2012 election than the candidates themselves.

The coordinated, nationwide War on Voting Rights, from Wisconsin to South Carolina and a dozen states in between. The push for voter ID laws in many of these states have been led by state legislators using “model legislation” they got from ALEC, an organization that pairs state legislators with corporate lobbyists to come up with corporate-friendly laws. We’ve written about Pennsylvania, the most recent state to pass one of these laws, where ALEC-attendee Rep. Daryl Metcalfe was the primary sponsor.

On a national level, the continuing influx of money and lobbying power on Capitol Hill, where the 112th Congress (the most conservative on record, according to one study) is completely driven by the wants and needs of wealthy corporations, whereas attempts to help working people – unemployment insurance, the payroll tax cut, infrastructure investment, aid to state governments to rehire teachers and first responders – have been fought tooth and nail, filibustered, defeated, or killed in committee.

But when it comes to corporate influence, it’s the state level where we want to focus our attention.

State houses are where the most egregious assaults on voting rights, fair share rights, and collective bargaining rights have occurred. Think Act 10 in Wisconsin and SB 1070 in Arizona.

State legislators are the delivery systems for ALEC’s corporate-backed “model legislation.” It’s no accident that Daryl Metcalfe and his counterparts in other states attended ALEC conferences and returned with model voter ID bills and collective bargaining bans.

Ultimately, the decision to overturn Citizens United can only occur at the state level. If you remember from history class, the process of amending the U.S. Constitution starts with approval by 3/4 of state legislatures.

That’s why we’re asking our State Legislators two simple questions:

1.) Are corporations people?

2.) Will you protect my right to vote from corporate influence?

The key is to get state legislators on the record on these issues, so we don’t get hoodwinked by corporate-backed politicians claiming to be “small government conservatives” while delivering ALEC legislation that infringes on citizens’ rights.

We elect our legislators, pay their salaries, and ultimately suffer when they deliver destructive legislations. We deserve answers to these two, basic, simple questions.

 

Tags: , , , ,